The decision to accept/drop the network packets is controlled by the Network Interface Card(NIC). NIC filters out the desired packets which system is entitled to recieve. However by setting the NIC to promiscuous mode the sniffing application receives packets regardless of the system being the intended destination. Sniffing is a difficult problem to acertain as it does not interfere with the network traffic, leaving no digital traces to track.
My Approach in theory
A “dynamic” protocol like Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) can be leveraged to detect the sniffing host. This protocol works alongside the Internet Protocol(IP) in Layer 3. On account of this ARP's operation occurs automatically in the background, without concern to the application user.
ARP works by sending an address request and collecting the response to create its mapping of addresses. The hardware addresses are only needed for hosts on the local network. At the lowest level, the Ethernet driver needs the hardware address of the remote system to which it will send a packet. When it does not have that address, it “broadcasts” a request for the missing address. This request, called an “ARP request”, contains the IP address of the host in question and is sent to all systems on the local network. A system may respond with a reply, called an “ARP reply”, which contains the host IP address and hardware address. The response received is used to build a table of IP addresses and hardware addresses.
Another feature of the protocol is called “gratuitous ARP”. This occurs when a host broadcasts an ARP request for its own hardware address. A Solaris system does this at boot time. It is used to detect if another system is using its IP address, indicating a misconfigured system. The other use of gratuitous ARP is to send updated
hardware address information. Systems that receive requests like this will automatically update the hardware address information for that host.
ARP by default uses BROADCAST method to get the destination MAC address. The idea here is to craft an ARP packet with the destination address being a non-BROADCAST address with a specific target IP address. If the NIC is in non-promiscuous mode, the packet is ignored and after the specified TTL no response is got back. However if the node with the corresponding IP address is in promiscuous mode, a prompt response is given by the sniffing host as the packet is percolated to the higher layers.
Using a handcrafted packet like ICMP with appropriate fields can induce the same effect.
-Defeating Sniffers and Intrusion Detection Systems
-Plummer, Dave. An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol, RFC 826, Network
Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA., November 1982.
- Interetworking with TCP/IP VolumeII Design,Implementation and Internals. Douglas E. Comer/David L. Stevens
-Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security , By Alex Noordergraaf and KeithWatson
The Reality ( Getting the hands dirty )
DESTINATION-MACHINE is alive
@ SOURCE-MACHINE>arp -a | grep DESTINATION-MACHINE
eri0 DESTINATION-MACHINE 255.255.255.255 00:03:ba:5b:8f:5d
@SOURCE-MACHINE>ping -s !$
ping -s DESTINATION-MACHINE
PING DESTINATION-MACHINE: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from DESTINATION-MACHINE (188.8.131.52): icmp_seq=0. time=1.26 ms
64 bytes from DESTINATION-MACHINE (184.108.40.206): icmp_seq=1. time=0.920 ms
----DESTINATION-MACHINE PING Statistics----
2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip (ms) min/avg/max/stddev = 0.920/1.09/1.26/0.24
inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000
inet 220.127.116.11 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 18.104.22.168
@SOURCE-MACHINE>/usr/local/bin/nemesis icmp -S 22.214.171.124 -D 126.96.36.199 -H 0:3:ba:4e:40:44 -M 00:03:ba:5b:8f:5d
ICMP Packet Injected
SOURCE-MACHINE -> DESTINATION-MACHINE ICMP Echo request (ID: 15815 Sequence number: 46167)
DESTINATION-MACHINE -> SOURCE-MACHINE ICMP Echo reply (ID: 15815 Sequence number: 46167)
Now sending a wrong MAC address to Destination ( last letter changed from d to e )
@SOURCE-MACHINE>/usr/local/bin/nemesis icmp -S 188.8.131.52 -D 184.108.40.206 -H 0:3:ba:4e:40:44 -M 00:03:ba:5b:8f:5e
ICMP Packet Injected
Using device /dev/eri (promiscuous mode)
SOURCE-MACHINE -> DESTINATION-MACHINE ICMP Echo request (ID: 12112 Sequence number: 10553)
Interesting thing to note was that the Packet was seen in the snoop output on DESTINATION-MACHINE but was not replied.
There goes the failed experiment. Reality turns out to be different than the assumed theory. Digging further as to how snoop manages to get a snapshot of the packet and not process the packet.